Hawthorne effect is a term used to describe employees' tendency to work harder and perform better when they are aware that they are being observed.
The Hawthorne Effect, originally discovered in the 1920s during a series of studies conducted at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, refers to the phenomenon where individuals modify their behavior or performance in response to being observed or receiving special attention. In the workplace context, the Hawthorne Effect suggests that employees may alter their behavior, improve their productivity, or change their work habits when they are aware that they are being monitored or when they feel that they are receiving increased attention from management or researchers.
The studies at the Hawthorne Works initially sought to examine the relationship between lighting conditions and worker productivity. However, researchers noticed that productivity consistently increased regardless of whether lighting conditions were improved or worsened. This led them to conclude that the observed increase in productivity was not primarily due to changes in the physical environment but rather to the awareness of being observed.
The Hawthorne Effect has been attributed to several underlying factors, including:
1. Increased attention: Employees tend to respond favorably to increased attention from management or researchers, as they perceive it as a form of recognition or validation of their work.
2. Motivation: The presence of observers or the knowledge that one's performance is being monitored can lead to increased motivation and a desire to perform better.
3. Self-consciousness: When individuals are aware of being observed, they may become more conscious of their actions and strive to meet perceived expectations, resulting in improved performance.
4. Social influence: The presence of others can create a social dynamic where employees may feel pressure to conform to certain norms or expectations, leading to improved productivity.
It's important to note that the Hawthorne Effect is not universally applicable or consistently observed in all situations. Its influence may vary depending on individual characteristics, the nature of the work being performed, and the specific context in which observations or monitoring occur. Nonetheless, understanding this phenomenon can be valuable for organizations seeking to enhance employee performance and productivity by leveraging the power of observation and attention.