Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act

The WARN Act in Texas: Your Minimalist Guide to Rights and Responsibilities

Published on June 4th, 2024


The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act is a critical piece of legislation designed to protect workers, their families, and communities by requiring employers to provide a 60-day notice in advance of covered plant closings and mass layoffs. 

Enacted in 1988, the WARN Act aims to give employees sufficient time to prepare for the transition between jobs, seek alternative employment, or undertake training to enhance their skills for new opportunities. The notice period also allows state and local governments to assist in providing training and other support services to affected workers.

Understanding the WARN Act is particularly important in Texas, where the state's diverse economy includes industries ranging from technology and energy to manufacturing and agriculture. Each of these sectors can be significantly impacted by the provisions of the WARN Act. Texas has specific nuances in its implementation of the WARN Act that both employers and employees must navigate. For instance, the application of the WARN Act in Texas can vary based on the size of the business and the nature of the layoffs, making it essential for stakeholders to be well-informed about their rights and responsibilities.

The significance of staying informed about the WARN Act in Texas cannot be overstated. Employers need to ensure compliance to avoid hefty penalties and legal consequences, while employees must understand their rights to receive appropriate notice and support. Moreover, the broader economic stability of communities in Texas can be influenced by the proper application of the WARN Act, as it helps mitigate the adverse effects of sudden job losses.

As we look ahead to 2024 and 2025, there are several updates and considerations that both employers and employees should keep in mind. In 2024, Texas saw some updates to the WARN Act provisions, reflecting changes in the labor market and economic conditions. 

These updates included adjustments in the notification requirements and enhanced support measures for affected workers. Anticipating further changes in 2024, businesses must stay proactive in understanding and implementing these updates to ensure compliance and support for their workforce.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the specifics of the WARN Act as it applies to Texas, examine the recent updates from 2023, and look ahead to potential changes in 2024. By understanding the intricacies of the WARN Act in Texas, stakeholders can better navigate the challenges and opportunities that arise during periods of economic transition and workforce adjustment.

Section 1: What is the WARN Act?

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act is a U.S. federal law that requires employers to provide a 60-day notice before significant workforce reductions, such as plant closings or mass layoffs. The primary objectives are:

1. Provide Time for Adjustment: Allow employees time to prepare for job loss by seeking new employment or retraining.

2. Support Community and Economic Stability: Help communities and local agencies prepare and offer support services.

3. Enhance Transparency and Fairness: Promote transparency in business operations and protect workers from sudden job termination.

Historical Context and Establishment of the WARN Act

Enacted on August 4, 1988, and effective from February 4, 1989, the WARN Act was introduced in response to large-scale layoffs and plant closures during the 1970s and 1980s. High-profile closures, like the sudden shutdown of the General Motors plant in Fremont, California, highlighted the need for legislative intervention to protect workers and communities.

The WARN Act was a bipartisan effort to provide workers with advance notice of significant layoffs, balancing the interests of workers and employers. Since its enactment, it has helped employees receive necessary notice to adapt to job losses and supported community stability during economic transitions.

Federal vs. State Provisions

The federal WARN Act requires employers with 100 or more employees to provide a 60-day notice before plant closings or mass layoffs. However, state-specific implementations can modify these requirements:

Notification Requirements: States may have different notice periods or additional requirements.

Employee Thresholds: Some states set lower thresholds for what constitutes a mass layoff.

Enforcement and Penalties: States may enforce the WARN Act differently and impose varied penalties.

Importance of State-Specific Provisions for Texas

Understanding Texas-specific provisions is crucial:

- Tailored to Texas Economy: Provisions are adapted to key Texas industries like energy and manufacturing.

- Enhanced Local Support: State-specific rules improve coordination with local government and community services.

- Legal Compliance: Employers must adhere to both federal and state laws to avoid penalties and ensure proper notice to employees.

By understanding these differences, Texas employers and employees can better navigate the WARN Act, ensuring compliance and adequate support.


Section 2: The WARN Act in Texas

The Texas WARN Act aligns with the federal WARN Act but includes specific provisions tailored to the state’s diverse economy. The primary goal is to provide workers with advance notice of significant layoffs and plant closures to minimize economic disruption.

- Notification Requirement: Employers must provide a 60-day notice before any plant closing or mass layoff. This notice must be given to affected employees, the Texas Workforce Commission, and the local government where the business is located.

Content of Notice: The notice must include details about the closure or layoff, reasons for the action, the number of affected employees, and the date of the event.

Key Requirements for Employers Under the Texas WARN Act:

- Thresholds: The Texas WARN Act applies to employers with 100 or more full-time employees.

- Mass Layoff Definition: A mass layoff is defined as a reduction in force affecting at least 50 employees or one-third of the workforce at a single site of employment.

- Record Keeping: Employers must maintain records of the notices provided and any communications with employees regarding the layoffs or closures.

Coverage and Exemptions

Types of Employers and Employees Covered Under the Texas WARN Act:

Covered Employers: The Act applies to private-sector employers, including non-profit organizations, that have 100 or more full-time employees.

Covered Employees: Full-time workers who have been employed for at least six months in the past year and who work an average of at least 20 hours a week are covered.

Exemptions and Special Cases in Texas:

- Temporary Projects: Employees hired for specific projects or seasonal work may be exempt if they were informed in writing at the time of hiring that their employment was limited to the project or season.

Unforeseen Business Circumstances: Employers may be exempt from the 60-day notice if layoffs or closures are due to unforeseen business circumstances, natural disasters, or major economic downturns.

Faltering Company: Employers actively seeking capital or business to avoid or postpone layoffs are also granted some exemptions under specific conditions.

By understanding the detailed provisions, coverage, and exemptions of the Texas WARN Act, both employers and employees can better prepare for and respond to potential workforce reductions, ensuring compliance and adequate protection under the law.

Section 3: WARN Act Texas 2024

Specific Changes to the WARN Act in Texas for 2023:

- Notification Requirements Adjustment: The Texas WARN Act in 2024 introduced a more streamlined notification process, requiring digital submission of notices to the Texas Workforce Commission to ensure faster processing and wider dissemination of information.

- Expanded Coverage: The threshold for what constitutes a mass layoff has been lowered, now requiring notice for layoffs affecting 25 or more employees, rather than the previous threshold of 50.

- Enhanced Support Measures: Additional resources and support programs for affected employees have been mandated, including mandatory retraining and job placement services coordinated by the Texas Workforce Commission.

Implications of These Changes for Employers and Employees:

- For Employers: Increased administrative responsibilities due to the need for digital submissions and potentially more frequent notifications due to the lowered threshold for mass layoffs. Employers must also coordinate with additional support services.

- For Employees: Greater protection and earlier notice for a broader range of layoffs, along with enhanced access to retraining and job placement services, leading to potentially quicker reemployment and less financial strain.

Section 4: Compliance Requirements

4.1 Notification Requirements

To comply with the Texas WARN Act, employers must determine if their planned layoff or closure affects 25 or more employees. If it does, they need to prepare a notice with specific information, including the company’s name, address, reason for the layoff, expected date, and the number and job titles of affected employees. 

This notice must be distributed to the affected employees, submitted digitally to the Texas Workforce Commission, and sent to local government officials. A 60-day advance notice is required before any planned layoff or plant closure.

4.2 Penalties for Non-Compliance

Non-compliance with the Texas WARN Act can result in significant penalties. Employers may have to compensate affected employees with back pay and benefits for up to 60 days and face civil penalties of up to $500 per day of violation, payable to the Texas Workforce Commission. 

Employees can also seek additional damages in civil court. Legal action, damaged reputation, and increased regulatory scrutiny are other potential repercussions. By adhering to the compliance requirements, employers can avoid these penalties and ensure a smoother transition during layoffs or closures.


Section 5: WARN Act Texas 2024 and Beyond

5.1 Anticipated Changes and Trends

Potential Updates and Changes to the WARN Act in Texas for 2024:

In 2024, the Texas WARN Act may undergo several updates to address evolving economic conditions and workforce dynamics. Potential changes could include lowering the threshold for required notifications further to include smaller layoffs, enhancing digital notification processes, and increasing support services for displaced workers. 

Additionally, there might be stricter enforcement mechanisms to ensure employer compliance and more robust protections for gig and contract workers.

How These Changes Might Impact Employers and Employees:

For employers, these changes could mean an increase in administrative tasks and a greater need for meticulous record-keeping. More frequent notifications and enhanced compliance requirements could also lead to additional costs and resource allocation. For employees, the anticipated updates would likely offer better protection and support during layoffs, providing more timely information and access to resources that can help them transition to new employment or retraining programs.

5.2 Preparing for the Future

Strategies for Employers to Stay Compliant with Upcoming Changes:

Employers should start by closely monitoring legislative developments related to the WARN Act. Staying informed through industry newsletters, legal advisories, and consultations with labor law experts can help anticipate and prepare for changes. Implementing robust HR systems to manage notifications and compliance records efficiently will also be crucial. Additionally, employers should establish strong relationships with local workforce development agencies to facilitate smoother transitions for affected employees.

Tips for Employees to Stay Informed and Protected:

Employees should remain proactive in understanding their rights under the WARN Act and any upcoming changes. Regularly reviewing updates from the Texas Workforce Commission and seeking information from trusted sources like labor unions or legal advisors can help employees stay informed. Participating in training and development programs can also enhance their skills, making them more adaptable and resilient in the face of potential layoffs. Networking with peers and industry professionals can provide additional support and opportunities during transitions.

By anticipating changes and preparing accordingly, both employers and employees can navigate the evolving landscape of the Texas WARN Act effectively, ensuring compliance and protection for all parties involved.


Understanding and complying with the WARN Act in Texas is crucial for both employers and employees. For employers, adherence to the Act helps avoid legal and financial penalties, ensures smoother operational transitions, and maintains the company's reputation. For employees, knowledge of the WARN Act provides essential protections and support during layoffs, helping them transition more effectively to new employment opportunities or retraining programs. 

Staying informed about current requirements and anticipating future changes, such as those expected in 2024, allows both parties to be better prepared for economic shifts and workforce adjustments. Ultimately, the WARN Act serves as a vital tool for minimizing the impact of layoffs and closures, fostering a more resilient and informed workforce in Texas.





As a technical content writer and social media strategist, Soujanya develops and manages strategies at HireQuotient. With strong technical background and years of experience in content management, she looks for opportunities to flourish in the digital space. Soujanya is also a dance fanatic and believes in spreading light!

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